August 22, 2011 | Theadora, PSY, Shared World, Zambia

The first few days at LLT we spent a great deal of time conducting research into some of the different areas that were mentioned during the three meetings: exploration of drip irrigation systems for the Zanimuone and Kabangwe area as well as past tailoring workshops. Drip irrigation systems would allow the self help groups to expand their gardens and thus their income. The goal of the tailoring workshop is to educate the women in the necessary skills required to make school uniforms for both their own children and for other children in the community. Once the women have received the necessary training they will be able to send their children to school and sell school uniforms at lower costs to their neighbours, in turn allowing more children to attend school.



This weekend I spent the vast majority of my time sitting on the ground: separating synthetic hair, braiding hair, and burning the ends of the synthetic hair (and hopefully not too much of my own). Theresa (a long-time friend of SWI who is routinely recruited to braid the girls hair) and I spent a gruelling 5 hours Friday night and another 7 hours Saturday morning (up bright and early at 5:00am) braiding my hair. In retrospect I’m very glad I got the braids done but at the time it was intensely painful (both at the time of braiding and for several days after) and I couldn’t help feeling a little bit like Medusa when I first looked at my reflection after 12 hours of pain. It was worth it.

Wheel Chair basketball

Every Tuesday and Thursday a group of men with disabilities get together and play wheel chair basketball at the Olympic field. For the past few weeks the men have been teaching us how to pass, dribble and shoot from a wheelchair- a feat which is actually very difficult. They are a wonderful group of men (The regulars: Derek, Banda, Harry, Antoine) and it’s always a blast and a great way to relieve some tension at the end of a long days work. Last week the men taught us how to play sitting volleyball- the same rules apply as able bodied volleyball (full court) except you sit on your butt and can only use your arms to move yourself around the court (you cannot use your legs to help you move around, the net is also slightly lower).  I think the men took pity on the mzungus because they allowed us to play half court only- we couldn’t shuffle our bodies fast enough to play full court- maybe by the end of the summer we’ll be good enough to play on the big kids court, but probably not…


Bwafwano vs Canada (team SWI)

As we walk onto the football field we can feel the weight and expectations of four years of undefeated play. For four years now SWI has gone undefeated against the Zambian opposition- alot to live up to. The Zambian/Bwafwano team dominated the game, maintaining possession of the ball for I’d wager 95% of the game. Only by sheer luck/chance did we manage to feign off their multiple attacks and score one glorious goal…. (atleast Chisha did). The field wasn’t exactly what I would call ideal playing conditions with giant crevices and pot holes laying in wait for some un-suspecting mzungu to fall into. However, the Zambian players were clearly accustomed to the terrain as they flew done the field expertly avoiding all the holes (the majority in bare or socked feet). It was an incredible experience and I look forward to a re-match next Saturday to defend our undefeated title.

Canada day

Today was the Friday from hell. Jules and I were up bright and early to meet the last group of women from Katuba. We met Miriam near 10 miles then made the long walk into Katuba. We were once again greeted by a large group of women who were dancing and singing when we arrived. The meeting went really well- we discussed all the group’s activities and some of the daily challenges faced by the women. The women brought out some plastic buckets after lunch and proceeded to start a small drum circle- unfortunately myself and Julie were placed in the middle and expected to dance. After having watched the women’s dancing and once again failing at replicating the hip motions- we resorted to doing the Macarena –the only dance the two of us could think of that we both knew and that had relatively simple dance movements. We were apparently so entertaining that the women felt the need to pay us each 1000 Kwacha- we learned later in the day that it is customary in Zambia to pay someone if they have provided you with some form of entertainment (we also learned a little too late that it is considered very rude to refuse the handout). At the end of the meeting we decided it would be interesting to see some of the women’s gardens in the community. Our mistake of the day was not asking our tour guide Miriam where the gardens were located or how she intended on returning us to the road side. Lesson learned. 9 hours, two funerals, and a ride on the back of a pickup truck down the highway we finally made it back home just in time for Canada day festivities. Nothing a few beers and a good conversation with friends can’t cure.

Canada day festivities at mama’s house were great. We’d invited a large group of our Zambian friends for dinner. Fresh chicken (seen earlier sitting in a basket on mama’s door step) cooked over a man made grill is delicious. The festivities came to a close with fireworks and an 11 person SWI pyramid. Earlier Jason had purchased a very large number of fireworks from a small Indian shop in town. It was hilarious to watch him light the wick of the fireworks then scurry away madly before they went off. I’m pretty impressed he didn’t singe any hair in the process.



July 6th- Today we had a rather impromptu meeting with the director of Waddington training centre to learn about their tailoring program and to share with them our own hopes for a training program. Five minutes after asking Goodson if we could speak with someone from the Waddington tailoring school we were sitting face to face with the director of the school. I think I’m still adjusting to the idea that it really is as simple as asking for a meeting.

Thursday morning we were up bright and early making the final preparations necessary to host our first meeting at Mama’s house: purchasing fritters, softies and dicing vegetables for an omelette. In attendance were Sibo, Idah  and Miriam (the community facilitators from Katuba, Zanimuone, Kabangwe) as well as an additional 9 members from various self-help groups. The meeting went off without a hitch thanks very much in part to the rest of our Lupwa team and Caro who helped prepare countless cups of coffee and a delicious lunch for our guests.  Later that day we met with Isaac (the program officer at Bwafwano) to learn about their tailoring skills training program and whether it would be possible to use their facility to host our training. I’m feeling very good about the prospects of the tailoring program, the more effort we put in and contacts we make the more I feel that it will become a reality. Isaac linked us to Brigitte (the director of community development) who we will be meeting with Tuesday morning to discuss possible funding opportunities.

Weekend festivities

Saturday morning brought a bit of an upset as SWI lost its first soccer game in over 4 years… but not to worry we will triumph next weekend to regain our title. That afternoon we celebrated Theresa’s (one of SWI’s many Zambian friends- she’s been busy the last three weekends braiding the girls hair) birthday with home-made beef burgers/veggie burgers, cake and peanut butter chocolate sauce (made special by our own personal master chef Christelle).  Celebrations lasted long into the night with much laughter and dancing. Helen (one of the house keepers at mama’s) shocked us all by breaking out some very impressive dance moves to the beat of “everyday i’m shuffling” – i don’t think she was very impressed by the mzungus dance moves :)

Sunday morning we made our way to Arcades market with the hopes of finishing the souvenir shopping for friends and family.

Half the fun of shopping at arcades is the chance to haggle with the vendors. As a general rule of thumb for most products you are to divide whatever price they first quote you by at least half if not more and then from there start the long process of working the price down to something more reasonable. Common quotes from arcades as you are walking past the vendors “my sister, my sister, come see what I have, come come.” “…my brother looking is free…” “do you have something to add, trade” (it’s common to trade something of your own to add to the negotiations: sunglasses, water bottles, sweaters- and in one case a cliff bar) No matter your fancy I can almost guarantee that one of the vendors will have it: from carved animals, to bow and arrows, oil paintings, quilts, bottle openers and many more wonders.

Meetings, meetings and more meetings

This past week has been very busy, meeting with other similar organisations to discuss their respective tailoring programs, the “honourable” MP for the Katuba district, a member of the Katuba women’s association and Mrs Daka the district community development officer of Lusaka. It was interesting to meet with the Flip Flop Foundation, an NGO that works to empower women in Lusaka through skills training, to discuss their sources of funding and how they operated. Meeting Mr Shakafuswa (the MP for the Katuba area) was an eye opening experience- he is essentially in charge of large sums of government funding and has the final say in who receives government grants. After explaining our two projects to the MP (and about 15 phone call interruptions) it became clear that he had no interest in aiding those he saw as “ lazy women, who were not in any need of assistance”. If the women couldn’t afford the cost of uniforms, “…they have only themselves to blame and should have thought about that before having so many children…” Although the meeting with Mr Shakafuswa may have been fruitless we were introduced to his wife who is part of the Katuba women’s association that does a lot of great work with women in Katuba.

Chetengue madness

This week we also had the opportunity to visit the Comesa market where we spent the greater part of two hours walking between very cramped wooden stalls searching for the perfect chetengue material. The stalls themselves were often quite small but as soon as you walked in you were bombarded with dozens of bright colours and beautiful patterns. It was a great experience trying to find the perfect pattern and colours. In the end I was quite happy with the material i bought.

Today we met with Jane and her daughter to have our measurements taken for the chetengue pants. As Jane sat in her wheel chair (essentially a wooden seat attached to a trolley with a contraption for them to wheel with her arms) she took our measurements for the hips, the thighs, length and foot size. Jane would often exclaim as she took our measurements: first the waist “Ah you are fat!”….. then the thigh and but region “AH! You are very fat!!”… which in Zambia is actually a great compliment (implying that you are well enough off to afford food) but at the time it’s hard not to think “hmmmmm….. maybe I should cut back on the nshima..”

Kafue National Park

This weekend we made the much anticipated trip to Kafue National park. The three hour trip by minibus was made enjoyable by the dozens of chocolate chip banana muffins and peanut butter cookies the team had made the previous night. Kafue National park is one of the largest national parks in the country and is host to countless animals. The campsite was quite large and opened up onto the Kafue river.That night myself and a few members of the team piled onto an open air jeep and spent the greater part of the evening on the night game drive. The first part of the ride was spent on the main road in the park pulling over to the side of the road whenever we would spot something: an elephant, so many antelopes, jackal, mongoose and many other native African creatures. Shortly after sunset we stopped for softies/mosi and chips on top of a small bluff in the country side. In the dark of the night we made our way back towards the campsite. The conductor had an amazing ability to spot animals 100’s of metres away with only the aid of a small hand held lamp. When we got back to the campsite the other girls were proudly sitting in front of a blazing fire cooking the fish that they had caught and gutted earlier that day. We stayed up late that night playing charades and sharing stories over wine, smores and a blazing fire. After only a few hours of sleep (the group of 10 students was split between two tents, with three mattress in each- I shared a double mattress with Shannon and Sarah) we were up early making a fire, cooking crepes, and making fruit salad. That morning myself and three of the other girls made our way onto the river navigating between the small herds of hippos. I still think hippos are absolutely hilarious – giant sea cows that snort in the middle of the night. Although we didn’t catch any fish we had an amazing time and spent the three hours perfecting our casts.

Work week

After 4 weeks of searching and many dead ends we were finally able to meet with Thomas Simubali from the Daybreak organisation to discuss the possibility of linking him with the women in the three communities to install and train the women in different irrigation systems. We spent an amazing hour discussing with Thomas the different activities of the DayBreak organisation: working with vulnerable populations to implement superior irrigation systems to help them yield larger crops and in turn make a larger profit margin. The group also trains the women in how to create more sustainable and affordable compost system in order to reduce their dependency on expensive pesticides and fertilizers. All in all the meeting was very successful and we look forward to introducing Thomas to the women and taking him to see all the gardens. Later that day Julie and I made our way by minibus to 6miles where we spent the next 2hours waiting by the side of the Great North Road waiting for Mr Hachilensa (the community development officer for the area) to arrive so that we could introduce him to Sibo and Idah’s self help groups. It was a very eventful two hours; we were approached by a number of very vocal Zambians. For instance, one man told us very matter of factly that if he were seen speaking with us (two mzungus) that people would accuse him of Satanism. However that didn’t seem to deter him from talking to us for the greater part of our wait. Upon Hachilensa’s arrival we were pleasantly surprised  to learn that we would have the opportunity to ride on the back of his motorcycle up the mountain to Sibo’s house. Anyone who’s ever worn a chetengue before can appreciate how difficult it was to hike it up in order to ride a motorcycle. The ride home was very entertaining as the man sitting in front of Julie and I was “slightly” inebriated and spent the entire bus ride home confessing his undying love to Julie and I. Over the last few weeks I received several wedding proposals and requests by men to take them home with me. Mary! Mary, marry me! I want a white wife! (The vast majority of female mzungus for some unknown reason are referred to as Mary).

Community Development Offices

This morning was a bit of a Gong show… Myself, Julie and Caro arrived at the community development offices with Sibo, Idah, Miriam and Goodson bright and early to discuss how to apply for government grants for the tailoring training.  After roughly an hour of waiting outside of Mrs Daka’s offices with what seemed like all of Zambia (there were people milling about everywhere, there was even a babies shoe tied to the stair case for some unknown reason- TIA (this is Africa- the only thing that can be said when one sees or experiences something out of the ordinary). The meeting although slightly hectic with eight people crammed into a small office space all vying to be heard went very well.

A common saying among the group is Zam-time whereas a common saying of Zambians is “we are never on time , we are in time”. If you’ve spent any time in Zambia you’ll quickly come to notice that when someone says i’m on my way this can be interpreted any number of ways- they could arrive within the next 5 minutes, or it could be another 3 hours before they show up- typical Zam-time. However Zambians are also surprisingly very speedy when it comes to some activities- for instance 5 minutes after our meeting with Mrs Daka, a field officer was waiting outside for us ready to meet all the women in Zanimuone and Kabangwe.

2 weeks left!!

It’s already our second to last weekend before the end of the placement. I feel like the time has gone by so quickly. I’m very excited to return home to see all my friends and am so excited to see my fiancée again. However, in sharp contrast I feel as if I don’t have enough time to complete everything that needs to be done before I leave, there’s still so much which can be done and not enough time to do everything I had hoped to accomplish before I left. It’s a bit of a strange juxtaposition. Counting down the days to return home, and counting down the days I have left to complete everything.

Bare Feet

Bright and early Saturday morning we were out of the house and on our way for a guided tour of Garden compound. Barefeet a local group of artist (musicians, painters, youth workers) were our guides for the afternoon (Tour guides: Island, Happy face, Felix and Ephraim). Our first stop of the day was outside a local market where we had our first opportunity to try the much anticipated shake shake. Shake shake is a very inexpensive form of Zambian beer (picture slightly curdled brown milk…). Sufficient to say it is not for the faint of heart. The next stop on our tour was a small arts school run out of the back of a small house. Happy face, one of the tour guides, had started the school a few years in the aim of empowering and providing activities for some of the local children in the area. The children are an amazingly talented group of artists and make a number of different crafts: paintings, soccer balls (made from what appeared to be balled up plastic bags) hats (made from sewn together pieces of cardboard), toy cars (made from recycled plastic bottles) and bags (made from video tape). The next stop on the tour was at a small organisation called Yofoso (Youth for Sports) located within the compound. As the name suggests the goal of the organization is to help local youth become active in sports and recreational activities in the hopes that this will dissuade them from engaging in otherwise possibly harmful activities. The age of children attending the recreational activities at Yofoso vary widely from 3 years of age and reaching as high as 19years of age. The children put on an amazing demonstration of their dancing skills. It was incredible to watch the children shake their hips with such speed and skill. Even after several dance lessons from the women’s self help groups I cannot even begin to shake my hips as well as these 3-10 year olds. As the dancing drew to a close drums were brought out and Island (one of the tour guides) started to rap in Nyanja with the children singing along in accompaniment-(chorus: Doodoo, yamunam- doodoo, yamunam) it was incredible to be a part of the experience. At one point it was expected that after having been shown the traditional dances that the mzungus would reciprocate and share some of their own dancing “skills” with the children… Grudgingly we obliged, but I don’t think they were as impressed by our own dance skills. Each one of us had the opportunity to step into the centre of the ring of children (about 70people total) and humiliate ourselves by attempting to replicate/ create our own individual type of dance. Sufficient to say our dancing was met with much laughter.

 The final stop on the tour was at a local witch doctors home. I think I’ve seen too many Hollywood films depicting witch doctors as old men in traditional tribal outfits living in small huts… This couldn’t have been further from the truth. We were met by a middle aged gentleman dressed quite conservatively in dress pants and a dress shirt surrounded by plastic pop bottles filled with strange substances. He then proceeded to tell us about some of his home recipes that could be used for any number of things: to make men more virile, treatment of epilepsy, treatments to make wives “warm” for their husbands and cancer treatments …

Drawing to a close

There’s only two weeks left in the placement, time has gone by so quickly. Our projects are moving along nicely and I’m confident that we will be able to complete everything before we leave on the 5th. There’s still a lot that we have to do: write up the proposals for the department of community development in order to receive the necessary funding for the tailoring workshop, confirm the location and the teacher for the three different areas (Kabangwe, Zanimuone, and Katuba), organize an irrigation workshop for the women in Zanimuone and Kabangwe, and take the first few steps in implementing a start up irrigation kit (essentially a demonstration garden in the community which the women can help with and learn from) for the women. A lot to do, but we can do it.

First on the docket for this week we have a meeting with Mrs Mutinta from IDE (international development enterprises), followed by research into the costs of all the sewing supplies necessary for the tailoring training (we need to include in our proposal an estimate of costs- not the easiest thing to do when you have no idea the quantities that are required for 10 women to be taught to make school uniforms- it’s a lot of slightly educated guess work), then a meeting with Hachilensa and all the community facilitators to discuss all the final steps of the project, a meeting with Thomas to discuss the irrigation workshop, meeting with the community school director in Kabangwe to discuss using their facility for the tailoring workshop and finally registering Idah’s groups with the registrar of societies.

Monday morning we made our way by minibus to an area of Lusaka called Twin Palms. The area is a sharp contrast to the streets and homes in Chazanga; giant properties surrounded by giant brick walls (with broken bottles glued to the tops) each manned by security guards yielding very impressive guns. IDE’s offices were quite striking: a large yard with luscious green grass and flowering plants with a long abandoned tennis court in the front yard. IDE had converted the home into an office space with small cubicles. The meeting itself went very well. Mrs Mutinta was very helpful and we are hopeful that the women will be able to work closely with them once they have a little more capital accumulated from their gardens.

Tuesday we made our way into town to try and track down Madina a tailoring store recommended to us by Sibeso (a tailoring teacher we met earlier in the trip). After about 40 minutes of walking through the streets of Lusaka, over and under a flight bridge and through some small markets we found the store….closed for lunch…very frustrating. A trip back into town and a pb and j sandwich later we made the same trek back to the store to get the prices of materials and supplies.

Wednesday morning we met bright and early with Hachilensa, Miriam, Idah and Sibo to finalize all the last steps for the tailoring training. To our surprise we discovered that the cost of registering your group (necessary to receive any funding from the government) was not actually 250,000k as we had been told a week prior but the cost had jumped dramatically to 550,000k. When we asked Hachilensa what the additional 300,000k was for and why the women needed to pay so much he explained to us that in order for the forms to be processed quickly and to be done correctly you had to grease the wheels a little bit. He also explained that if we wanted him to take in the forms 100,000k of the additional 300,000k was to cover his transportation and time. This came to us as quite a bit of a surprise as the additional costs (which legally should not have existed) totalled more than the original cost of registration. At this point Julie and I were stuck with the uncomfortable decision of whether to take the forms in ourselves (and risk them never getting processed and Idah’s group never becoming registered), or feeding into this small level of corruption (in order to ensure that Idah’s group became registered in a timely fashion). In the end, with the help of the supervisors I think we came to a satisfactory solution: We would recruit the help of one of SWI’s Zambian friends (Harry) and have him take the forms in and try and haggle with the officers at the registrar of societies to have Idah’s group registered as quickly as possible.

AHHHH!! We got our chetengue pants back today from Jane. They look great, albeit a little short and lacking in bum space, but i’m really happy I got a pair made. The fabric looks great J.

The next day myself, Harry and Julie made our way to the registrar of societies offices in town to get Idah’s and Sibo’s groups registered. Julie and I remained in the car while Harry made his way into the offices (we didn’t want to take the chance of being charged extra for registration because we were mzungus – we have often heard throughout the trip “there is the Zambian price, and then there is the mzungu price- although this is certainly not true of all Zambians, as is true in almost any society there are those individuals that will take advantage of foreigners). After five minutes inside Harry emerged. Apparently the registration documents were missing several key components: a signature and date stamp from Mr. Hachilensa, and two signatures- one from a police post in Lusaka and one from the district executive secretary. This information was met with quite a bit of frustration as we were under the impression that the forms were complete. I am beginning to understand why many of the self help groups that we are working with are not as of yet registered- the amount of paper work and the physical amount of effort and travelling that is required is ridiculous-it’s no wonder these groups can’t access much needed government grants.


Tonight was the team’s big going away party- all co-workers and friends were invited for a celebratory dinner and fireworks. The night was a great success with dancing and laughing continuing long into the night (really 10:00 because we had to lock up the house- but still a great time). The next morning the whole team was up bright and early and on our way to the Dutch Market (a market held once a week hosted by the Dutch Reform Church) to make our final purchases before the end of the trip. As always there were many beautiful things to see and tons to choose from.

 That night we celebrated Jess’s 20th birthday at her favourite Indian restaurant in town. Later that night the team surprised the birthday girl with a handmade piñata (made to look like her stuffed shark Pedo) filled with candies and gummies. After a quite a few whacks with a very large nchima spoon “pedo” the shark went careening into the wall and yet still remained relatively intact (apparently several layers of cereal boxes and a layer of paint does not break open easily). After a few more minutes of smashing “Pedo” finally burst open to shower us all with sweets. It was well worth the effort.


One week left

Less than one week before we leave for Zanzibar, myself and 8 of the other students will be taking the 48hour train from Lusaka to Dar Es Salaam then from Dar we will be taking the ferry to Zanzibar. But before the week is over Julie and I still have quite a few things to tie up before we leave. It should be an interesting week.

Monday morning we met with Thomas to finalize the plans for the irrigation training: 20 women will be receiving training starting Monday morning and ending Friday. The next day we met with Sibo, Idah and a few of the women from each community for the last time. For the past few weeks we’d been preparing care packages for both women: binder with all the necessary documents they would require to register their groups in the future, as well as the documents needed to apply for a government proposal- in total roughly 250 photocopies. It’s our hope that the women’s progress is not hampered by something as small as making photocopies and transportation costs- so the photocopies should help ensure they have everything they might need in the foreseeable future. The women were super excited when we told them that they would be able to start their irrigation workshop on Monday and that the proposals for tailoring had been submitted. It was really rewarding to see their happy faces and see to see their excitement.

At the end of the meeting we took the Bwaf team (that had yet to visit rural communities in Zambia) to look at the women’s gardens. Of interest, we were also shown how Pride (Sibo’s son) makes the bricks necessary to build mud huts. The men use what appears to be common ground dirt with water added to make it into a mud like consistency, then fill wooden troughs, level off the tops and slide the troughs off leaving behind two small mud bricks.  A relatively labour free way of making building materials, and very inexpensive.


Goodbyes are never easy. Saying goodbye to Sibo and Idah was particularly difficult as I feel as though I’ve learned so much from them and that we have had a real impact on their lives, and them on ours. I’m going to miss them both very much. It was a very tearful farewell for everyone

The last few days are a bit of a blur of excitement and nerves as the final details for both projects were completed: a tailoring teacher was confirmed for the women once a week, a location was finalized in Kabangwe, and the workshop was scheduled to begin in less than a week with all costs covered.

Our last day in Zambia the team made the trek up Kabangwe mountain (ie: minibused to 6 miles, then climbed the Kabangwe hill). The walk itself up the hill is relatively small only about 15 minutes, but the view from the top is incredible. The area around Chazanga is relatively flat so once at the top of the hill you can see for miles on either side. Moses, our trustee tour guide brought us up the hill and sang/danced his way down the mountain all the while playing – Love you more the entire way down the mountain. Funny guy.

It’s a strange feeling to be done the placement. I’m excited to be travelling with the team (minus our beloved Christelle who will be making her way to Turkey- but its ok because were bringing  small piece of her with us in the form of delicious banana muffins) but really sad to be leaving everyone that I’ve met and become friends with here. I’ll definitely miss Moses and his crazy dance moves and ever present smile. I swear he can make anyone smile. Mama and her hilarious expressions whenever we do something she considers exceptionally strange (like cooking porridge, or making poutine). Alot of Mama’s confusion is generated by our cooking. Harry and all the guys at wheel chair basketball (Antoine, Banda, Derek). Of course Jason and Caro- I couldn’t have asked for a better group of supervisors. No matter the situation Jason will always have a crazy story to tell. Sibo, Idah, Miriam and all the women we met throughout our internship.

Final project

I’m really proud of what we managed to accomplish over the last two months: 30 women from Kabangwe and Zanimuone will receive a one week irrigation training course (learn how to make raised beds, use drip irrigation, make their own composting material, and how to cut back on the use of pesticides). Following the training each farmer will receive a drip irrigation system as well as hands on training for the next 2 crop rotations. The second part of this summer’s project was to organize a tailoring workshop for 20 women from Zanimuone and Kabangwe. By the end of the placement we had registered two self help groups (they will now be able to access much needed government grants), as well as applied for a government grant for two groups to cover the costs of the tailoring workshop: teacher provided by the DCD, facility provided for by the Tulibantu community school, and supplies purchased with the funds received from the grant. I’m really looking forward to staying in contact with the women and staying updated on the progress of their gardens and their tailoring skills. It will be really wonderful to know how our projects have helped the community in the years to come.

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